“The court recognizes the difficulties that might accompany in-person voting during this time,” the ruling said. “But Indiana’s absentee-voting laws are not to blame. It’s the pandemic, not the State, that might affect Plaintiffs’ determination to cast a ballot.”
"The Secretary is continuing to restrict boards from implementing off-site collection, and he appears to be doing so in an arbitrary manner," Polster wrote. "The Court has given the Secretary every opportunity to address the problem ... and he has been unwilling or unable to do so."Montana: Supreme Court Justice Elena Kagan on Thursday denied a request from Republicans to block Montana Gov. Steve Bullock's directive last month allowing counties to send mail-in ballots to all registered voters amidst the coronavirus pandemic. Kagan, who has jurisdiction over the lower court involved in the case, turned down the request without referring the petition to her colleagues or asking the other side for its views.
“During redistricting, I need to give (my potential successor) some more Republican neighborhoods in order to make sure she stays elected,” Wagle said. “I guarantee you, we can draw four Republican congressional maps,” Wagle said. “But we can’t do it unless we have a two-thirds majority in the (state) Senate and the House.”
|Subclass||Creator||Description||Playtest Feedback||I Allow||Notes|
|Oath of Avarice COFSA||GenuineBelieverer||A Paladin that believes bling is justice.||Balanced. It is actually pretty solid, and one of my favorite things from COFSA.||✔||I like alternative Paladin Oaths that are unique, and it's unique, and actually pretty balanced. It also does a much better job of having an adaptably flavor that is not tied to lore or strange mechanics. All around solid.|
|Oath of Anaracy POP||BunnygeonMaster||A Paladin the believes freedom of movement is a right.||Balanced. It mostly just gives a lot of tools for moving about.||✔||Limitless power has a line that might break your game about ignoring creature's immunity, so you may want to play your BBEG accordingly or tweak that feature, but that's 20th level.|
|Oath of the Grim Hunt||SethBlackwood||A Paladin with a Warlock's amount of edge.||Somewhat too much. d12 smites with rerolls, even as your channel divinity, is a lot in practice; we are talking a first level slot for 3d12 with rerolls vs. a Fiend or something.||X||I think this is probably the Paladin where I started adopting the principle to stop playtesting Paladins that have a feature that reads, essentially, "Smite harder", as that is really the last thing Paladins need in life even if it is what they end to want.|
|Oath of the Midnight Hour||the_singular_anyone(walrock)||A Paladin that stalks the night and shanks their foes.||Mostly balanced. I find Shadowblade to be a bit much early on, especially due to it's fairly high chance to interact with criticals.||✔||I allow it because I want a Paladin that is like this, but I would like it better if Shadowblade wasn't as strong (or was at least harder to use). I may nerf that feature if someone wanted to play it in a campaign again.|
|Oath of Power POP||BunnygeonMaster||A Paladin that is a superhero.||It is a little too meme-like for me, but mechanically balanced.||X||I should have been more suspecious of anything that has an anime quote, but I didn't recognize such things on first pass. Your mileage will vary based on the tone of your game.|
|Oath of Sanity||KibblesTasty||A blantantly misnamed Oath for making an insane Paladin.||Balanced, if perhaps on the somewhat more specific/undertuned side.||✔||This oath bats way over par in making characters that very entertaining. It's like if a Call of Cthulu investigator found their way into D&D but still had their old insticts that everything was going to kill them.|
|Oath of Zeal||CaelReader||A Paladin that thinks Vengeance Paladins are soft on heretics.||Giving Paladins more smite can be a little over the top.||X||I'm not sure giving up 10 points of lay on hands is overpowered, but it did feel imbalanced (as in just not in balance), in that it turned the Paladin into a very one note thing (more smites, all the time, which I believe is the intention of it). I also think Stern Gaze should probably just be intimidation, as it makes little sense for Persuasion checks.|
|Subclass||Creator||Description||Playtest Feedback||I Allow||Notes|
|Beast Master (Revised)||KibblesTasty||Be more than just a graveyard manager for your menagrie of dead pets. A functional beastmaster.||Balanced. A good balance between "your pet cannot attack" and "you have two actions"||✔||WotC has struggled a lot with pet classes, but I find it a good balance. Your pet can occasionally attack and frequently help you out.|
|Dragon Apprentice Ranger||TheArenaGuy||For when being raised by wolves just doesn't cut it. A ranger themed around emulating a dragon.||Balanced, generally fits the Ranger template well, even if that template is kicking you right in the bonus actions.||✔||Some players are disappointed they don't get a dragon till 15th level. I don't use the cosmic dragons, so cannot speak to anything related to them here, but the rest should be fine.|
|Shooting Star ATLAS||aeyana||A Ranger that shoots for the stars (cosmic ranger).||Balanced. It's fine, and generally obeys the Ranger rule that your bonus action will be a cluterfuck.||✔||I find their resource system (motes) sort of a pain in the ass and they generally have too much of it, but it's mostly fine.|
|Witch Hunter YAG||Yorviing||A Ranger that hunters Witches... and potentially other spell casters too.||More or less balanced, but somewhat too specialized. If there aren't Witches to hunt, their feature pool is a little shallow.||✔||It's generally okay, though I may warn against it for a new player that may overestimate how many spell casting enemies they will fight (and I tend to run more than usual).|
|Witchguard||RSquared||A Ranger that fights off the Witch Hunters (above)... Bond with a spell caster and protect them.||It is overpowered in a way, but I still allow it. It really comes down to how worried you are about a Ranger being somewhat too good at being a team player.||✔||It is overpowered in the sense that it is too strong when compared to what a Ranger subclass should be, but I don't find that it does it in a way that causes issues in my game. Your mileage may vary. Sort of requires buy in from another player, so a little unusual that way.|
|Subclass||Creator||Description||Playtest Feedback||I Allow||Notes|
|Acrobat||Mage Hand Press||Tumble and leap your way to victory.||As written, Parting Toss makes no sense. If it is balanced depends on how you modify that feature.||✔||RAW, Parting Toss does nothing. If you read it to mean it's a free action, it's busted. I replaced that feature entirely.|
|Assassin(Revised)||KibblesTasty||Gives assassin new ways of dealing death.||Balanced. The original assassin does one thing very well, this does a few things pretty well.||✔||Some will miss the old Assassinate, but it rarely played nice with a party, and we could go weeks without getting a single use of it, while this has a good mix of solo assassination and party play.|
|The Brotherhood||Mage Hand Press||Assassin's creed rogue.||Partially balanced. Death From Above has a reasonable drawback until 13th level, and there it costs your reaction, so isn't too bad.||✔||Goes from near useless to very strong depending on how much vertical space is on your battlemaps.|
|Divine Agent||KibblesTasty||The black ops wing of any organized ||Balanced, perhaps a little undertuned due to how late rogue subclass features come in.||✔||A Divine Rogue that isn't a 1/3 caster, but has limited casting from their features. Would prefer a little early casting.|
|Ruffian||Jaekbad||A Rogue that fights ||Balanced. The general idea is well implemented and works well, none of the features are crazy.||✔||The rare pleasent example of something on the /UA curated list that belongs there. Quite like the idea and its a unique take on a Rogue subclass while still being archetypically a rogue. Should be noted it doesn't specialize in strength (though can technically use it) despite the name.|
|Surgeon||KibblesTasty||A walking revoked medical license.||Balanced. It provides a good balance of support and rogue template features.||✔||I run the Intelligence variant, as I prefer my surgeons to be smart rather than cunning.|
|Shinobi||Mage Hand Press||The ninja rogue everyone wants to be.||Balanced, their ki is pretty limited and does reasonable things for the most part.||✔||I make Kaginawa part of Cunning Action rather than a free action; your mileage will vary based on how vertical your maps tend to be.|
|Spidertouched COFSA||GenuineBelieverer||A Spider themed rogue that shoots webs and poisons things.||Balanced, if a little strong in the hands of a clever player, particularly when combined with CBE.||✔||There is a semi common synergy between nets and CBE, and this sort of amplifies that. In fact, it makes nets incredibly strong in general. It also scales extremely well with haste. They are limited in their special net requiring a bonus action (which conflicts with CBE), which is sort of its saving grace.|
|Subclass||Creator||Description||Playtest Feedback||I Allow||Notes|
|Ashen Lineage COFSA||GenuineBelieverer||The kid of an Ashen Wolf Warlock.||Balanced, more or less. The first level feature is mostly useless - produce flame mostly a worse firebolt, the claws are niche.||✔||It's okay, but some players were a little frustrated that it doesn't quite seem to do what it wants to do. It is hard to effectively actually use the Born of Ember feature, as Sorcerers are not natural gishes, and if you multiclass, you'd probably to actually attack for scaling reasons... it's like the Ashen Wolf Warlock, but lacks the invocations to make it actually work.|
|Aether Heart||KibblesTasty||A Sorcerer's whose true power is that of their heart. Because it's a magical power source.||Balanced, if slightly undertuned at lower levels.||✔||It is sort of metamagic specialist, which I think is a good niche for a Sorcerer subclass, but doesn't quite go far enough and I already give extra metamagic.|
|Deathtouched DarkArts||Jonoman3000||A Sorcerer that gets the power from a connection with death||Balanced, generally powerful if dim light is commonly available, but may suffer a bit if your party likes it light sources.||✔||It doesn't have a bonus spell list, so I give it one, which sort of conflicts with the 6th level feature as there's just not that many necromany spells to go around, but it works out.|
|Imperial Birthright||IrishBandit||A Sorcerer with the bluest of blood that commands things.||Mostly balanced. The 18th level feature is a little much relative to other Sorcerer 18th level features.||✔||I still allow it for specail cases, but have mostly retired it to just use Noble Warlord as that's usually a better for what my players are looking for, but they are different concepts.|
|Nymph Bloodline||Mage Hand Press||An alluring Sorcerer that specializes in charming.||Not even vaguely balanced. Not suitable for most games.||X||Almost every feature is ill advised, but bypassing immunity to charm and bypassing legendary resistance and removing the drawbacks of charm magic is a combination that is guarenteed to a derail any game. Do not recommend.|
|Pheonix Spark(Revised) ElementalOrigins||KibblesTasty||A revision of the pheonix Sorcerer, a Sorcerer all about bursting into flames.||Mostly balanced, and pretty good at feeling like the theme.||✔||When I playtested it the cap on restored hit points wasn't there and it was a bit much, but I see it's been updated. I used the UA version up until switching to this reversion recently, as pheonix sorcerers are popular in my groups (all of those UA elemental sorcerers are)|
|Seasonal||TheArenaGuy||If 5e Eladrin was a Sorcerer subclass.||Balanced, if perhaps somewhat undertuned overall.||X||It's first level feature is to give you spells, which is cool, but I already give that to all Sorcerers, so it doesn't offer them enough. Conflict of Homebrew. Summer and Spring are also almost always better than Autumn or Winter.|
|Sea Soul (Revised) ElementalOrigins||KibblesTasty||A revision of the Sea Sorcerer from UA.||Balanced, though a I felt it was a bit finicky at times.||✔||I have always struggled with the theme of this one as I feel its a little too close to Storm (both in the UA and this revision) but people want to play it, so I allow it. It's fine... this is a little more polished and balanced than the UA version was, but I allowed that one previously.|
|Stoneheart (Revised) ElementalOrigins||KibblesTasty||Kibbles' version of Stone Sorcerer, a more gish like Sorcerer.||Balanced. It does not make the Sorcerer suddenly a tank, but gives them an interesting playstyle||✔||I like this one a good bit more than the UA version, it's power set is a little more grounded and coherent, while still making the Sorcerer a more viable gish-like thing. Has been quite popular. I did eventually drop the UA Stone Sorcerer awhile ago, so this was a good replacement.|
|Subclass||Creator||Description||Playtest Feedback||I Allow||Notes|
|The Acursed Archive COFSA||GenuineBelieverer||The world's evilest librarians.||I had a big issue their ability to essentially planeshift 10 people into the library as an action.||X||I don't know if I would call it broken, but your mileage will vary. Read tainted knowledge carefully and decide how comfortable you are with that feature being abused. It's in some ways a better time stop at level 1. You and whole whole party can precast any non concentration spells you want (fire shield, mirror image, sanctuary, there's actually quite a few and trust me munchkins will find them)... and there is little hundreds more little things (non-healing potions, etc).|
|The Ashen Wolf COFSA||GenuineBelieverer||Warlock who made a pact with fire doggo.||It's not really stronger than hexblade most of the time. Feels pretty geared toward Pact of the Blade though, and very invocation hungry.||✔||The 14th level feature isn't really balanced, but is also one of the few class features I've seen kill its player (and this happened in fact twice) due to the exhaustion backlash. I generally don't like features that give players more power in exchange for killing themselves. Depending on how you rule exhaustion and death, there are additional problems (if death removes all exhaustion, that can be exploited, if it doesn't, this subclass can permanently kill you).|
|The Archlich DarkArts||Jonoman3000||A Warlock that made a deal with an Archlich.||Somewhat subpar. The 1st level feature requires concentration, which will generally always be a deal breaker for a Warlock as they are so dependent on concentration.||X||The 6th level feature depends on the 1st level feature, which requires concentration, meaning if you use any Warlock spell like Hex or Darkness, you essentially have no subclass features until 10.|
|The Archmage||Mage Hand Press||An apprentice that's taken a massive short cut to the whole being a Wizard thing.||Balanced, perhaps somewhat undertuned.||✔||Arcane Storage is better at some levels than others, but Ubreakable Spell and Spell Resistance are quite good.|
|The Blackthorn Grove COFSA||GenuineBelieverer||A warlock with an evil plant for a heart.||Balanced? It's fine... the 1st level feature is niche, and the 6th level feature is strangely only really applicable to Pact of the Blade.||✔||The 6th level feature only really making sense for Pact of the Blade is sort of a problem, as generally speaking other Warlocks don't really want to hold a ranged weapon all the time (the only option that'd make sense for them to use that feature with).|
|The Blind Justicar COFSA||GenuineBelieverer||A Warlock that made a deal with a Warrior Saint to become a Paladin.||I don't know what the math on the 1st level feature was supposed to be, but in my experience it doesn't really work out.||X||The first level feature lets you replace 2d20 with 3d12 drop the lowest, but best I can tell this makes you virtually always hit (or save, but you rarely have advantage on saves, while you usually have advantage on attacks). I'm not a deep math guy, so perhaps it was just absurd luck on the playtest, but 3d12 drop 1 does not seem like a reasonable way to roll attacks in my testing against fairly standard ACs (14-18).|
|The Currency Conspiracy COFSA||GenuineBelieverer||A typical merchant.||Balanced, but more focused on social pillar and exploitation than combat.||✔||It's not necessarily suitable for all games, and depending on your intrepretation of the lore may be exclusively evil due to it's habit turning parts of people's souls into cash-money and all of its class features depending on doing so.|
|The Divine Beast||TheArenaGuy||Pact of the Beast Master||More or less balanced. Due to the ability to resummon it with a pact slot, it tended to be an unlimited pool of hit points; there is a limiter based on time, but I never saw that really matter. You can fix this just by not attacking it, but your mileage will vary based on how run monster intelligence.||X||It is to Pact of the Chain what Hexblade is Pact of the Blade in a way that it's a subclass clearly designed for one Pact to fix that play style, and is just a little weird for other Pacts.|
|The Dreamer||Mage Hand Press||A Warlock for manipulating sleep and dreams.||Has issues. Doubling the power of sleep at level 1 is truly broken. Sleep is a spell that has to fall off due to how powerful it can be.||X||Their School of Sonomancy Wizard does the same thing, and isn't on the list as I passed on it after trying this one. Doubling sleep's hit points at level 1-3 is ridiculous and will auto end most low level fights.|
|The Gelantinous Convocation COFSA||GenuineBelieverer||Befriend cheerful slimes.||Balanced, though somewhat geared less toward combat.||✔||Their first level feature can make a murder mystery really boring, so read it before it allow it and decide if it'll work for the sort of game you run (allows you to eat a corpse and know what it knew once a day)|
|The Knowledge Keeper||KibblesTasty||A Warlock the knows everything there is to know.||Your mileage may vary. Trades combat effectiveness for extreme utility.||✔||This one is very open ended, and I'm not sure I'd recommend it to anyone beside a veteran player. It's extremely flexible, but kept largely in check by Warlocks very limited slots.|
|The Lady of the Lake||Xenoezen||A Warlock that got their power from some aquatic ceremony with a watery tart.||Mostly Balanced. It's generally balanced on its own.||✔||It is generally more balanced than Hexblade when it comes to Paladin multiclassing with it, though with less thematic dissonance. But if you don't allow Hexblade, don't allow this.|
|The Nebula ATLAS||aeyana||A very sparkly Warlock.||Shimmering Cloud has an strange interaction with Armor of Agathys that is somewhere between nonfunctional and problematic.||X||You may read Armor of Agathys differnetly than I do and not count attacks that hit the Shimmer Cloud as proc'ing its damage, in which case you might be fine, but this is a lot if you don't (imagine a 3rd level AoA; each hit deals 15 to the attacker, but they have to deal 30 damage to break the shield, taking 15 damage each time they hit you); note them hitting the cloud procing AoA is probably not RAW though how I've always run abilities like that, so your mileage may vary.|
|The Saint||Yorviing||A Warlock blessed by a saint-like figure.||Balanced. It's fine, though depends on how you do short rests you may be wary of Prayer of Healing on the Warlock list.||✔||The PDF is not the easiest thing to read, though that might just be an issue on my side due its non-standard formatting.|
|The Tempest||KibblesTasty||A Warlock that builds a storm around them.||Balanced, though deals substantial mini-area of effect damage, making it highly effective sometimes.||✔||I like how the storm building mechanic extends the Warlocks effective power by making something out of it's limited uses of Pact Magic and giving it a bit more utility.|
|The Wild Hunt COFSA||GenuineBelieverer||The Warlock who made a pact with the bad guys from the Witcher||Not balanced. Like many COFSA Warlocks it really depends on how you build it, but it gives a combination of things that can be really annoying to deal with, though seems pretty focused on Pact of the Blade.||X||Slayer's Armory is a little crazy as it makes Hunter's Mark add 2d6 damage, which when combined with a high hit-high attack build (like CBE) deals fairly ridiculous damage, and with Find Steed you can manipulate the hell out of range making them very difficult to deal with. Slayer's Armory technically does not scale with magic weapons, but that's not a great solution.|
|Subclass||Creator||Description||Playtest Feedback||I Allow||Notes|
|Generalist YAG||Yorviing||A Wizard that majored in GEs at Wizard school.||More balanced than most generalist Wizards. It's no loremaster.||✔||I find Regenerative reservoir a bit much over the course of a day given how useful 1st level spell slots are, and how very powerful this is as you get later in the game, but this is largely a side effect of long adventuring days, so your mileage may vary.|
|School of Arithmetick||Mage Hand Press||A Wizard that's based on being good at math...||...but requires a DM bad at math to allow it. No comment and lesson learned. Not particulary balanced.||X||This whole subclass is pretty nonstandard. Accrual alone would disqualify from consideration for most people. As to what is broken, it's mostly using stats with Factorize, as a whole group of monsters will have the same value for a stat, and savvy player will know what that stat is often allowing somewhat absurd things.|
|School of Astronomy ATLAS||aeyana||A Wizard that's power comes from the alignment of the stars.||Balanced, while the stars give you some flexibility (and some early damage) it's not generally too much.||✔||I read Spell Stars as that you still have to be able to see the target and you cannot see through the spell stars, so you still need line of sight. If you make different assumptions, balance might be different.|
|School of Blue Magic YAG||Yorviing||A Wizard based around stealing and copying their enemies spells.||It's more or less balance, but completely dependent on your party and what you fight.||X||I don't have any real objection to it, but players generally didn't think it was what they thought of as a Blue Mage, but I don't really know enough the source material of the idea to comment there.|
|School of Hemomancy DarkArts||Jonoman3000||A Wizard that specializes in the blood magic provided by the supplement.||More or less balanced itself, but depends on the Hemomancy spell list, so your mileage may vary there.||X||I used it while I used those spells, but as I no longer use those spells, this wouldn't really work out as it's completely tied to those spells.|
|School of Innovation||KibblesTasty||A Wizard that lets you make your own spells.||It's a good effort at balancing a ridiculous idea.||X||It's a good bit of fun, and I think could be used, but as with anything this open ended, some user caution is recommended. I do use it as a template for player created spells though.|
|School of Pathology||KibblesTasty||A current events Wizard. Somewhere between a plague doctor and a plague maker||Mostly balanced. It will somewhat depend on the power and frequently of diseases in your game for their 14th level feature, but wasn't an issue for me.||✔||I am not personally a big fan of the spell contagion, I like the spell in principle, but it's in an awkward spot of being effectively "save three times or die". That's a gripe with the spell though, not this subclass.|
|Fighter||Strength, Dexterity (Choose 1)|
|Monk||Dexterity, Wisdom (Choose 1)|
|Paladin||Strength, Charisma (Choose 1)|
|Ranger||Dexterity, Wisdom (Choose 1)|
|Background||Ability Score Increase (Choose One)||Associated Skill Proficiencies|
|Acolyte||Intelligence, Wisdom, Charisma||Insight, Religion|
|Anthropologist||Intelligence, Wisdom, Charisma||Insight, Religion|
|Archaeologist||Constitution, Intelligence, Wisdom||History, Survival|
|Athlete||Strength, Dexterity, Constitution||Athletics, Acrobatics|
|Azorius Functionary||Intelligence, Wisdom, Charisma||Insight, Intimidation|
|Boros Legionnaire||Strength, Constitution, Charisma||Athletics, Intimidation|
|Charlatan||Dexterity, Wisdom, Charisma||Deception, Sleight of Hand|
|City Watch / Investigator||Strength, Intelligence, Wisdom||Athletics, Investigation, Insight|
|Clan Crafter||Intelligence, Wisdom, Charisma||History, Insight|
|Cloistered Scholar||Dexterity, Intelligence, Wisdom||History, Arcana, Nature, Religion|
|Courtier||Dexterity, Wisdom, Charisma||Insight, Persuasion|
|Criminal / Spy||Dexterity, Wisdom, Charisma||Deception, Stealth|
|Dimir Operative||Dexterity, Wisdom, Charisma||Deception, Stealth|
|Entertainer||Dexterity, Constitution, Charisma||Acrobatics, Performance|
|Faceless||Dexterity, Wisdom, Charisma||Deception, Intimidation|
|Faction Agent||Intelligence, Wisdom, Charisma||Any Intelligence, Wisdom, or Charisma|
|Far Traveler||Intelligence, Wisdom, Charisma||Insight, Perception|
|Fisher||Dexterity, Intelligence, Wisdom||History, Survival|
|Folk Hero||Strength, Wisdom, Charisma||Animal Handling, Survival|
|Gladiator||Strength, Dexterity, Charisma||Acrobatics, Performance|
|Golgari Agent||Dexterity, Intelligence, Wisdom||Nature, Survival|
|Gruul Anarch||Strength, Constitution, Wisdom||Animal Handling, Athletics|
|Guild Artisan / Guild Merchant||Intelligence, Wisdom, Charisma||Insight, Persuasion|
|Haunted One||Constitution, Intelligence, Wisdom||Any Intelligence or Wisdom|
|Hermit||Constitution, Intelligence, Wisdom||Medicine, Religion|
|House Agent||Dexterity, Intelligence, Charisma||Investigation, Persuasion|
|Inheritor||Constitution, Intelligence, Wisdom||Survival, Arcana, History, Religion|
|Izzet Engineer||Dexterity, Constitution, Intelligence||Arcana, Investigation|
|Knight||Strength, Intelligence, Charisma||History, Persuasion|
|Marine||Strength, Dexterity, Wisdom||Athletics, Survival|
|Noble||Constitution, Intelligence, Charisma||History, Persuasion|
|Orzhov Representative||Strength, Intelligence, Charisma||Intimidation, Religion|
|Outlander||Strength, Constitution, Wisdom||Athletics, Survival|
|Rakdos Cultist||Dexterity, Constitution, Charisma||Acrobatics, Performance|
|Sage||Dexterity, Intelligence, Wisdom||Arcana, History|
|Sailor / Pirate||Strength, Dexterity, Wisdom||Athletics, Perception|
|Selesnya Initiate||Intelligence, Wisdom, Charisma||Nature, Persuasion|
|Shipwright||Strength, Intelligence, Wisdom||History, Perception|
|Simic Scientist||Constitution, Intelligence, Wisdom||Arcana, Medicine|
|Smuggler||Strength, Dexterity, Charisma||Athletics, Deception|
|Soldier||Strength, Constitution, Charisma||Athletics, Intimidation|
|Urban Bounty Hunter||Dexterity, Wisdom, Charisma||Stealth, Insight, Deception, Persuasion|
|Urchin||Dexterity, Constitution, Wisdom||Sleight of Hand, Stealth|
This post will cover topical use of vitamin c and it's derivatives.submitted by Aayu07 to IndianSkincareAddicts [link] [comments]
Link to the previous post.
Topical Use of vitamin C has been proven to be beneficial in many many studies. I am quoting all the studies I could find, and listing all the benefits as well.
Topical use of Vitamin C (L-Ascorbic Acid/Ascorbic Acid) has been proven to:
There have been A LOT of studies on topical vitamin C. I have extracted and link a few I found relevant that support it benefits at THE END of this post.
There is enough evidence to believe that topically applied L-ascorbic acid is beneficial.
While most people treat Vitamin C like an acid, it's mechanism isn't exactly similar to AHA's. L-ascorbic acid is a form of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) that is recognisable as vitamin C in the skin. Topical use adds to the existing concentration of Vitamin C in the skin.
Thus, once it penetrates into the skin, it cannot be washed off/neutralised. However, some actives applied togetheat the same time can change its performance/form.
L-ascorbic acid is a hydrophilic charged molecule so it doesn't easily penetrate our lipid (hydrophobic) barrier. For optimal penetration of the epidermal barrier, aqueous formulations of ascorbic acid must be at a pH which is below the pKa (4.2) of ascorbic acid itself. Thus, L-ascorbic acid must be formulated below the PH of AT LEAST 4 for it to penetrate in our skin.
Although ideally around 3-3.5 increased penetration without excessively compromising the skin barrier.
The prime concentration depends on the formulation and associated delivery method. It is a general agreement that concentration needs to be more than 8% to be bio-available and effective. According to this study, varying concentrations from 5% to 30% were applied to pig skin(similar integumentary system approach).
It was observed that vitamin C concentration was maximum at 20% and anything above 20% surprising cause depletion in tissue concentration levels. Thus anything below 8% and above 20% is usually seen to be sparse or superfluous.
There are many stability issues with L-ascorbic acid solutions. An L-ascorbic acid solution is highly unstable and is prove to oxidation to dehydroascorbic acid(DHAA) and degradation to 2,3-diketogulonate in high temperature, light, heat, high ph, presence of oxygen and catalytic amounts of metal ions. This makes the solution progressively turn in colour from clear to yellow, to deeper shades of orange as it continues to degrade.
Ascorbic acid or ascorbate in its ionised form is called L-ascorbic acid. Our skin recognises L-ascorbic as ascorbic acid. Our body (and skin) also contains an oxidised form of ascorbic acid which is Dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA). A high amount of vitamin C found in normal skin is in the form of dehydroascorbic Acid. This study shows that DHAA penetrated faster than L-ascorbic acid even. DHAA may not necessarily be bad and can be converted back to ascorbic acid in the presence of glutathione & thiol-containing reducing agents such as cysteine, homocysteine, 2-mercaptoethanol, and DTT, already present in our body. However, in the presence of water DHAA may be irreversibly hydrolysed to 2,3-diketogulonate and further degrade to Erythrulose. Erythrulose is a chemical used in fake tanning.
But “Aap Chronology Samajhiye” with this representation -
L-AA is first oxidised to DHAA (which can be reversed in our skin). Oxidation means a reaction with the free form of oxygen molecules. Remember we learnt this in the last post. So oxidation can happen if L-AA is exposed to UV/oxygen in the environment at high temperature. However, DHAA can be reversed to AA in our skin because the presence of network antioxidants like glutathione that's already present in your skin. Check out this diagram to understand how that works. However, when DHAA comes in contact with water it hydrolyses to 2,3-diketogulonate. Which cannot be turned back into AA due to the 5 hydrogen ring rupture. L-AA will not directly convert to 2,3-diketogulonate. It has to first oxidize then hydrolyse.2,3-diketogulonate may be further converted to other byproducts by other processes.
Lab muffin made a post on this.
It is possible that DHAA may not convert to Erythrulose in our skin.
In conclusion, there is a lot of ambiguity around oxidised L-ascorbic acid and further processed byproducts.
No studies have evaluated the benefits and side effects of these oxidised and degraded compounds.
Although, the presence of antioxidants like ferulic acid, glutathione, vitamin e, etc. has been shown to increase the stability and efficiency of L-ascorbic acid serums. These called network antioxidants because of this reason. Again check out the diagram linked above to understand more.
To improve stability, the delivery mechanism also plays an important role. The right delivery mechanism can help prevent oxidation and conversion to other forms. Novel delivery mechanisms may also improve penetration along with stability. New delivery mechanisms to deliver L-AA without oxidizing are bein developed. This study advocates using liposomal technology patented by Sesdema to deliver sodium ascorbate deeper into the skin. Many skincare companies are developing new anhydrous bases to disperse L-AA to prevent oxidation. Here is another study of a new delivery mechanism.
However, an independent comparative study comparing different forms and delivery mechanisms of topical ascorbic acid has not been conducted.
So in conclusion:
Owing to these stability, penetration and delivery issues with L-Ascorbic acid formulas, new derivatives of Ascorbic acid were developed.
Now my field of experience is not even remotely linked to bio-chemistry so I am not going to go in detail about the biochemical pathways that are hypothesised for their efficiency. I will, however, try to compare popular derivates and their performance/properties in brief based on information available on the internet.
A comparative analysis of various Vitamin C Derivatives
Let's be honest that picking one among the sea of options is intimidating. Fairly, it comes down to personal preference and availability.
While choosing though there are certain things you should keep in mind. Only L-ascorbic acid has been studied for over 40 years now and has consistently proven to be advantageous topically.
Due to its highly unstable nature,
Anhydrous variants are another great option. There are some limitations with anhydrous versions as well though***.*** Since AA is acidic and gritty in itself, these formulas can sting and sensitize your skin. Many people break out while using high concentration L-AA for the first time. Its highly acidic nature can compromise the skin barrier. It's best to start with a lower concentration and gradually make your skin acquainted to L-AA. This can also be achieved by using L-AA a few times a week in the start and adding barrier healing skincare products to your regime.
Most people experience a slight stinging when they use L-AA based products. There is a difference between stinging and burning although. If your skin feels like it's burning, it's best to step back, stop use and choose a diluted version/low concentration formula.
Burning is a strong irritation that feels different from tingling. It is a strong discomfort which may be coupled with redness, itching and touch sensitivity. It basically feels like your skin is on fire. Please immediately wash your face with water to wipe off remains of the product and apply soothing, gentle products containing restorative ingredients like aloe, snail mucin, ceramides etc.
It is best to patch test L-AA based products before applying it all over the face to understanding the way it reacts with your skin. Our mod u/avaale has made an amazingly detailed guide about patch testing. Please check it out to understand more about patch testing.
In conclusion, L-AA may not be the best option for everyone due to its stability and skin sensitizing issues. If that is the case, you can still get some benefits by incorporating vitamin c derivatives. There is a catch though. Not all derivates are equal and not enough comparative studies have been conducted to conclude which one is the most superior form.
However, by understanding the nature of the ingredient coupled with the anecdotal evidence we can understand a few things:
This chart may help you come to some conclusion:
A graphical representation to make your decision easier.
Another important detail: Almost all vitamin C formulations stay in your skin for up to 72 hours. Metals like iron and copper are known to destabilize and cause unwanted biochemical reactions with AA. Thus is it best not to use copper peptide formulation with vitamin C to maximize their benefit. By not using Copper peptide, I mean not just applying them together at the same time but also not using them in the same duration. So if you wish to use copper peptide you can rotate by using it for the first 3 months of the year and next three months using vitamin C and so on.
Some Extracts with Links to Clinical Studies/Research Journals I found relevant that support the benefit of topical application of L-AA:
23.8% L-ascorbic acid and a chemical penetration enhancer consisting of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and dimethyl isosorbide with iontophoresis to maximize amounts of L– ascorbic acid delivered were applied once daily, in a split-face study on twenty females (Fitzpatrick type III & IV to study the effect of Vitamin C on photoaged skin. Sixteen of 20 patients (80% experienced a score decrease of 2 or 3 grades, according to the dermatologist. Fifteen patients (75%) rated their overall satisfaction as excellent or good. Dyspigmentation, surface roughness, and fine lines on the treated side improved significantly.)) Topical 23.8% L-ascorbic acid serum is effective for the treatment of photo-aged skin and does not cause any obvious side effects. Link
A double-blind randomized trial was performed to evaluate the clinical effects and the modifications of skin relief and structure over a 6-month period of use of a cream containing 5% vitamin C (Active C®, Laboratories La Roche Posay, 92407 Courbevoie Cedex, France on photoaged skin. Twenty healthy female volunteers aged 51-59 years (mean ± SD = 55.3 ± 2.8 years, were chosen for this study. Skin regions that presented with signs of ageing, the low-neck and dorsal aspects of both forearms/ the left or right half of the upper chest and the corresponding forearm were randomly assigned to once a day application of a fingertip unit of either 5% vitamin C cream or excipient alone. Each patient received a randomized pair of identical-appearing tubes, colour-coded and labelled right or left. Among these 20 patients, 10 accepted to be biopsied on both forearms at the end of the trial, after 6 months of treatment.)) Concluded that topical application of 5% vitamin C is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for improvement in the appearance of photodamaged skin. Prolonged topical treatment with ascorbic acid, applied in an appropriate vehicle, may result in activation of a dermal synthesis of elastic fibres. - Link
Fifty female volunteers aged 30‐65 years were allocated one capsule containing vitamin C (20% w/w, vitamin E, and European raspberry (Rubus idaeus leaf cell culture extract of serum for topical application on one side of the face for 2 months, in addition to self‐use of facial skin products to evaluate the anti-ageing and brightening effects of an encapsulated serum.)) ***The study evaluated improvements in skin ageing, pigment appearance, and skin integrity but no no significant improvement of skin moisture or TEWL was observed. Link
Nineteen volunteers between age 36 to 72 years belonging to Fitzpatrick skin types I, II & III were included in a 3-month, randomized, double-blind, a vehicle-controlled study that uses a product Cellex ( L-AA serum to analyse its effect on photodamaged skin topography.) A 3-month daily regimen of topical ascorbic acid provided objective and subjective improvement in photodamaged facial skin - Link, Link
500 mL portions of vehicle; 0.5%transferulic acid; 15% L-ascorbic acid, 1% DL-a-tocopherol, and 15% L-ascorbic acid, 1% DL-a-tocopherol, 0.5%transferulic acid were applied to patches of back skin (7.5 x10cm daily for 4 days. A 1000 W solar simulator ﬁtted with a WG295 Schott ﬁlter to eliminate wavelengths less than 295 nm delivered UV radiation to the skin’s surface through a liquid light guide at an intensity of 5 mW per cm2of UVB and about 40 mW per cm2of UVA as measured by a radiometer. MED(Minimal Erythema Dose was determined as the lowest dose resulting in erythema with perceptible borders (40 mJ per cm2)of UVB). Each patch was given solar-simulated irradiation in triplicate from 2x to 10x MED at 2x MED intervals. An evaluation was carried out 24 h later. The combination of 15% L-ascorbic acid, 1% a-tocopherol, 0.5% ferulic acid provided approximately 8-fold protection and was statistically different than ferulic acid alone or the combination of vitamins C and E. - Link ; Check this if you want to learn more about MED testing.
Two different solutions were applied (2mg/cm2 to the back skin of human volunteers daily for four days. One solution was an aqueous solution containing 15% L-ascorbic acid, 1% d-tocopherol and 0.5% trans ferulic acid (C E Ferulic; the other, a vehicle control solution. On day four, solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation, passed through a WG295 Schott selective UVB band high pass filter to eliminate wavelengths less than 295 nm was administered to each patch of treated skin. The vehicle patch received 2-6x MED and the C E Ferulic patch received 2-10x MED of solar-simulated irradiation, each at 2x MED intervals. One day later, skin was evaluated by colorimeter for erythema and biopsies of 6x MED-irradiated skin were evaluated for sunburn cells. Each spot and adjacent unirradiated skin was measured in triplicate. The difference between irradiated and unirradiated skin determined the erythema. Sunburn cells were determined in formalin-fixed 8mm punch biopsy sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin.) C E Ferulic provided substantial protection against erythema.) Link
Dermal papillae is the structural junction between the dermis & the epidermis. It has been observed to flatten out with age. The influence of ageing on the density of the functional entities of the papillae containing nutritive capillaries, here in terms as the papillary index, and the effect of topically applied vitamin C were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM in vivo. There were significant decreases in the papillary index showing a clear dependency on age. Topical vitamin C resulted in a significant increase of the density of dermal papillae from 4 weeks onward compared to its vehicle. Reproducibility was determined in repeated studies.) Topical vitamin C may have therapeutic effects for partial corrections of the regressive structural changes associated with the aging process. - Link
Forty subjects with melasma were treated with C'ensil during an open-label trial over a period of 16 weeks. Each subject's skin pigmentation was assessed every 4 weeks using the Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI and mexameter score. In addition, transepidermal water loss, skin dryness and irritation, and quality of life (Melasma Quality of Life Scale [MelasQoL] were evaluated.)) After 16 weeks, a significant decrease was noted in the degree of pigmentation based on the patients' MASI and mexameter scores.Link
Sixteen women with idiopathic melasma were included in our trial. After randomization by another clinician, they were instructed to use, at night, 5% ascorbic acid cream on one side of the face and 4% hydroquinone cream on the other side, for 16 weeks. The best subjective improvement was observed on the hydroquinone side with 93% good and excellent results, compared with 62.5% on the ascorbic acid side (P < 0.05; however, colorimetric measures showed no statistical differences. Side‐effects were present in 68.7% (11/16 with hydroquinone vs. 6.2% (1/16) with ascorbic acid.)) Although hydroquinone showed a better response, ascorbic acid may play a role in the therapy of melasma as it is almost devoid of side-effects; - Link
The study following performed on Indian subjects.
A split face, comparative study was conducted on 30 female melasma patients. After obtaining informed consent, microneedling with Tranexamic acid was done on the left side and microneedling with Vitamin C was done on the right side of the face. The improvement was evaluated on the basis of clinical photographs, MASI, Physician Global Assessment (PGA and Patient Global Assessment (PtGA at each visit (0, 4 and 8 weeks). At the end of 8 weeks, MASI, PGA and PtGA showed improvement with both tranexamic acid and vitamin C.)) The improvement was more with tranexamic acid than with vitamin C, although not statistically significant.Both TXA and Vitamin C are effective and safe treatments for melasma. -Link Link
Note: SORRY FOR THE LONG POST ONCE AGAIN!!
During my research, I found some really interesting Insights & Dupes for popular vitamin C formulas and products from manufacturer documents. I also cost/formula analysed Most Popular Vitamin C products. I even looked up all possible options for vitamin C in Indian markets.
I will try to share these insights on my Instagram soon and maybe make a post about my finding and whatever is left out in a follow-up post if I am not being lazy. There is still a lot to explore about Vitamin C. Look out for my upcoming Instagram stories if you are curious.
Note: I do not consent to anyone sharing screenshots of my posts without my approval on any social platform.
The founder of SkinCeuticals Dr Sheldon R. Pinnell conducted turnkey research in the field on Vitamin C as a topical antioxidant. His first study published on topical application of vitamin C goes back to 1991. He filed his patent for Skinceutical CE ferulic in 2005. I guess that's why it remains the most coveted formulation and has been used by other researchers in various studies. It also justifies its price I guess. The good thing is that the patent is expiring in 2025! :P Till then we can only hope and pray someone invests time and research on developing more stable formulations and makes it available to consumers!
Murray, J.; Darr, D.; Reich, J.; Pinnell, S. Topical vitamin C treatment reduces ultraviolet B radiation-induced erythema in human skin. J. Investig. Dermatol. 1991, 96, 587.
Darr, D.; Combs, S.; Dunston, S.; Manning, T.; Pinnell, S.R. Topical vitamin C protects porcine skin from ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Br. J. Dermatol. 1992, 127, 24753.
Phillips, C.L.; Combs, S.B.; Pinnell, S.R. Effects of ascorbic acid on proliferation and collagen synthesis in relation to the donor age of human dermal fibroblasts. J. Investig. Dermatol. 1994.
Colven, R.M.; Pinnell, S.R. Topical vitamin C in ageing. Clin. Dermatol. 1996, 14, 227–234.
Pinnell, S.R.; Yang, H.; Omar, M.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.; DeBuys, H.V.; Walker, L.C.; Wang, Y.; Levine, M. Topical L-ascorbic acid: percutaneous absorption studies. Dermatol. Surg. 2001, 27, 137–142.
Darr D, Combs S, Dunston S, Manning T, Pinnell S. “UV photoprotection by combination topical antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E”. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003; 48: 866-874.
Fu-Hsiung Lin 1, Jing-Yi Lin, Ravindra D Gupta, Joshua A Tournas, James A Burch, M Angelica Selim, Nancy A Monteiro-Riviere, James M Grichnik, Jan Zielinski, Sheldon R Pinnell **2**005 "Ferulic acid stabilizes a solution of vitamins C and E and doubles its photoprotection of skin" Oct;125(4:826-32. DOI: 10.1111/j.0022-202X.2005.23768.x.)
Murray, John & Burch, James & Streilein, Robert & Iannacchione, Mary & Hall, Russell & Pinnell, Sheldon. 2008. A" topical antioxidant solution containing vitamins C and E stabilized by ferulic acid provides protection for human against damage caused by ultraviolet irradiation." Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 59. 418-25. 10.1016/j.jaad.2008.05.004.
24 Development 2007—Forums on Witness Intimidation conducted by PA Commission on Crime and Delinquency (PCCD) 2009—Judicial bench book suggested. PHL DA obtains grant from PCCD, retains former prosecutor and current judicial educator Stuart Suss as researcher and writer. Witness intimidation is a fundamental threat to the rule of law. It also involves significant strategic complexity and two-sided uncertainty: a criminal cannot know whether his threat will ... Intimidation: A Concept Analysis. Clare Lamontagne MS, RN, CNE. Clare Lamontagne, MS, RN, CNE, is a Professor of Nursing at Springfield Technical Community College and a PhD Student at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA. Search for more papers by this author. Harassment, Intimidation & Bullying (HIB) Resources on Harassment, Intimidation and Bullying. Printable (PDF) . The resources identified below are presented only as a representation, and not as an exhaustive selection or review of materials available on the subject of harassment, intimidation and bullying (HIB). Use Fill to complete blank online OTHERS pdf forms for free. Once completed you can sign your fillable form or send for signing. All forms are printable and downloadable. DISCRIMINATION, HARASSMENT, INTIMIDATION, & BULLYING POLICIES . On average this form takes 5 minutes to complete
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